The coinage of Apollonia and Dyrrhachium

Chronological list of the Dyrrhachian drachms

30 October 2021

Contents of this page:


Introduction

Creating a complete list of the drachma emissions with full description and chronology is a challenging task. Unfortunately, the small number of known hoards containing the early emissions has been insufficient to establish their chronological sequence.

The tables try to give sufficient information for the identification of the Greek-Illyrian drachms even if the piece is not well centered. Representative coin pictures will be shown in a planned Gallery page.

For the time being, the tables of the early classes list only few examples. Where the chronology is uncertain, the emissions are listed in the alphabetical order of the name on the reverse (denoting the year of issue); and within these, the coupled obverse names are also in the alphabetical order.

The start of the drachma production is still unclear in contrast to the end of minting (49/48 BC). The negative numbers in the first column show the relative chronological place of the emission calculated backward from the end (=-1) where the probability of the relative chronology is high. The second column shows the actual year when the emissions of that issue were minted (B.C.). The names are printed in Greek capital letters, with breaks as they are seen on the coins. The column with the symbols on the obverse is followed by Ceka's and Albana Meta's catalogue numbers (if apply). An asterisk in the last column indicates that half drachma also exists to the whole one of the same name combination; details of which will be included in separate tables since they may have abbreviated name on the obverse and/or a different arrangement of the symbols from those displayed on their whole drachma pairs.

The lists will be extended gradually; first with those name combinations, which cannot be found either in Ceka's or in Meta's book.

Only authentic name combinations are included in these tables; mischievous imitations taken as originals in many publications or also in Ceka's list are not. The explanation and details of the different style elements forming the base of the chronological classification can be found in the previous chapter.

(Back to the top of this page ↑)


Class D1a-b (210-176 BC)

Obv.: Abbreviated or monogrammatic name above cow. No border of dots, no symbols, no exergue line. Rev.: Line border.

Number of known issues: 35. Based on purely style matters, the drachma production started when Agion was the eponymous magistrate in 210 BC, with two mint subordinates, ΣΩ and ΕΡ. The sequence of the other issues is still uncertain but the repetition of the obverse names suggest the probable chronological order.

Class D1a-b drachms
Year B.C. Obverse Reverse Ceka Meta ½
-161 210 ΣΩ ΑΓΙ Ω ΝΟΣ 395 I/5 -
ΕΡ 149 I/3 -
? ? ΑΙ ΛΥ ΚΗ ΝΟΣ - - -
ΣΩ 398 I/5 -
? ? ? ? ? ? -
? ? ΙΠ ΦΡΥ ΝΟ Υ 242 - -
? ? ? ? ? ? -
? ? ΑΓ ΒΙ Ω ΝΟΣ 5 I/10 -
? ? ? ? ? ? -

(Back to the top of this page ↑)


Class D2 (175-145 BC)

Obv. Full obverse names. No border of dots, no symbols. Exergue line.

Number of known issues: 31.

Class D2 drachms
Year B.C. Obverse Reverse Above Left / Right Exergue Ceka Meta ½
? ? ? ? - -/- - ? ? ?
? ? ΚΤΗΣΩΝ ΑΛΚ ΜΑ ΝΙΔΑ - -/- - - - -
? ? ? ? - -/- - ? ? -
? ? ΑΛΚΑΙΟΣ ΛΥ ΣΙΠ ΠΟΥ - -/- - 36 ΙΙΙ/20 *
? ? ΑΡΧΙΜΗΔΗΣ - -/- - 101 III/31 *
? ? ΔΙΟΓΕΝΗΣ - -/- - 135 ΙΙΙ/26 -
? ? ΛΕΑ ΜΗΔΗΣ - -/- - 289 - -
? ? ΣΤΕΦΑΝΟΣ - - / - - - - -
? ? ? ? - -/- - ? ? -
? ? ΑΡΧΙΜΗΔΗΣ ΠΑΡ ΜΕΝΙ ΣΚΟΥ - -/- - 103 ΙΙΙ/31 -
? ? ΔΙΟΓΕΝΗΣ - -/- - 138 - -
? ? ? ? - -/- - ? ? -
? ? ΜΑΧΑΤΑΣ ΠΙΣ ΤΟΞΕ ΝΟΥ - -/- - 313 - -
? ? ΜΕΝΙΣΚΟΣ - - / - - 326 IV/18 -
? ? ? ? - -/- - ? ? -
? ? ΘΕΟΔΟΤΟΣ ΘΕΟ ΓΕΝ ΕΟΣ - - / - - 221 - -
? ? ? ? - -/- - ? ? -

(Back to the top of this page ↑)


Class D3 (144-93 BC)

Obv. One symbol on the obverse, usually in the exergue. Rev. Line border.

Number of known issues: 52.

Class D3 drachms
Year B.C. Obverse Reverse Above Left / Right Exergue Ceka Meta ½
? ? ? ? - - / - - ? ? -
? ? ΜΕΝΙΣΚΟΣ ΑΛΕ ΞΙΩ ΝΟΣ - - / - - or club 317 II/18 -
? ? ? ? - - / - - ? ? -
? ? ΑΦΡΟΔΙΣΙΟΣ ΑΡΙ ΜΝΑΣ ΤΟΥ - - / - vine branch + grapes + leaf 9 IV/33 -
ΑΡΧΙΜΗΔΗΣ - -
ΕΥΠΟΡΟΣ - -
ΗΡΑΚΛΕΙΔΑΣ 204 III/27
ΗΡΟΔΟΤΟΣ 208 IV/36
ΘΕΟΔΟΤΟΣ 219 IV/35
ΚΛΕΩΝ 257 IV/34
ΛΕΥΚΙΟΣ 291 IV/44
ΜΑΧΑΤΑΣ 302 IV/37
ΠΑΡΑΜΟΝΟΣ - -
ΦΙΛΩΤΑΣ 447 IV/53
? ? ? ? - - / - - ? ? -
? ? ΗΡΟ ΔΟΤΟΣ ΕΥ ΑΙ ΝΟΥ - - / - indecipherable - - -
? ? ΘΕΟΔΟΤΟΣ
? ? ? ? - - / - - ? ? -

(Back to the top of this page ↑)


Class D4 (92-60 BC)

Multiple symbols on the obverse. The number of different obverse names coupled with the same reverse varies between one and 17.

Number of known issues: 33.

I put the Ariston-Filodamou issue at the beginning of this class (but it is not the very first) for its peculiarity. The same name combination with the same symbols on the obverse exists also in Apollonia Class A4Ls (see in the next chapter) suggesting that the Apolloniate and Dyrrhachian versions were minted synchronously in the two towns when Filodamos was the eponymous magistrate in both places with moneyer Ariston. Class A4Ls drachms were minted between 85-82 BC thus the Dyrrhachian Ariston-Filodamou issue was struck in one of these years, too.

Beyond this particular issue, only the later part of the issues have been included in the table, of which I established their chronology with high probablility (between yearsd -13 and -30).

Class D4 drachms
Year B.C. Obverse Reverse Above Left / Right Exergue Ceka Meta ½
? ? ? ? ? ? / ? ? ? ? -
? 85/82 ΑΡΙΣΤΩΝ ΦΙ ΛΟΔΑ ΜΟΥ - ear of corn / - rudder 97 IV/40 -
? ? ? ? ? ? / ? ? ? ? -
? -27 ΦΙΛΩΤΑΣ ΚΛΕ ΑΝΟ ΡΟΣ - - / torch - 453 IV/53 -
? ? ? ? ? ? / ? ? ? ? -
-26 73 ΕΧΕΦΡΩΝ ΧΑΙΡΥΛΛΟΥ - - / - thyrsus 198 IV/52
ΕΥΝΟΥΣ 179 IV/59
ΦΙΛΩΤΑΣ 459 IV/53
-25 72 ΕΧΕΦΡΩΝ ΔΙΟ ΔΩ ΡΟΥ - - / - serpent round staff 194 IV/52
ΕΥΝΟΥΣ - -
ΠΑΝΚΡΑΤΗΣ 366 IV/51
ΦΙΛΩΤΑΣ 540 IV/53
-24 71 ΑΝΤΙΓΕΝΗΣ ΖΩ ΠΥ ΡΟΥ head of Helios - / owl
62 IV/62
ΕΥΝΟΥΣ 176 IV/59
ΦΙΛΗΜΩΝ 428 IV/61
ΦΙΛΩΝ 439 IV/63
ΚΕΡΔΩΝ
IV/
ΜΑΧΑΤΑΣ χ IV/
ΦΙΛΩΤΑΣ χ IV/
-23 70 ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ ΚΑΛ ΛΗ ΝΟΣ 3 - - / cornucopia head of Helios 24
-
ΜΑΧΑΤΑΣ ?
?
ΦΙΛΩΤΑΣ 452
IV/53
ΠΑΓΚΡΑΤΗΣ 368
IV/51
-22 69 ΕΥΝΟΥΣ ΑΡΙΣΤΗΝΟΣ Juno with sceptre - / - owl 169 IV/59
ΦΙΛΗΜΩΝ 424 IV/61
ΚΕΡΔΩΝ - IV/58
-21 68 ΑΝΤΙΓΕΝΗΣ ΝΙ ΚΥΛ ΛΟΥ cock - / cornucopia serpent round staff 62 IV/62
ΕΥΝΟΥΣ 176 IV/59
ΦΙΛΗΜΩΝ 428 IV/61
ΦΙΛΩΝ 439 IV/63
ΚΕΡΔΩΝ
IV/
ΜΑΧΑΤΑΣ
IV/
ΦΙΛΩΤΑΣ
IV/
-20 67 ΑΝΤΙΓΕΝΗΣ ΘΕΟ ΓΕΝΕ ΟΣ head of Helios - / torch hound 66 IV/62
ΕΥΝΟΥΣ 173 IV/59
ΦΙΛΕΜΩΝ 425 IV/61
ΦΙΛΩΝ 436 IV/63
-19 66 ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ ΒΟΙ ΚΗ ΝΟΣ torch - / ear of corn vine branch + leaf 22 IV/69
ΑΝΤΙΜΑΧΟΣ  70 IV/64
ΕΥΝΟΥΣ 170 IV/59
ΚΥΔΙΠΠΟΣ - -
-18 65 ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ ΔΑΜΑ ΓΕ ΟΣ eagle on fulmen - / - - - IV/69
ΑΝΤΙΜΑΧΟΣ  72 IV/64
ΓΛΑΥΚΟΣ 124 IV/68
ΔΙΟΝΥΣΟΣ 143 IV/67
ΕΥΚΤΗΜΩΝ 163 IV/70
ΕΥΝΟΥΣ 171 IV/59
ΚΥΔΙΠΠΟΣ 287 IV/66
ΠΑΡΑΜΟΝΟΣ 370 -
ΦΙΛΩΝ 434 IV/63
-17 64 ΑΛΕΚΚΑΣ ΜΕ ΝΕΚ ΚΑ eagle on fulmen - / - - - -
ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ  27 -
ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΣ 75 IV/65
ΔΗΜΟΚΡΙΤΟΣ 131 IV/75
ΕΥΚΤΗΜΩΝ 166 IV/70
ΕΥΝΟΥΣ 175 IV/59
ΚΤΗΤΟΣ 279 V/74
ΚΥΔΙΠΠΟΣ 288 IV/66
ΦΙΛΩΝ 437 -
ΦΙΛΩΤΑΣ 455 IV/53
-16 63 ΑΝΤΙΜΑΧΟΣ Α ΜΥΝ ΤΑ - - / cornucopia rudder 69 IV/64
ΕΥΚΤΗΜΩΝ 162 IV/70
ΕΥΝΟΥΣ 168 IV/59
ΚΤΗΤΟΣ 275 IV/74
ΚΥΔΙΠΠΟΣ 286 IV/66
ΣΩΣΤΡΙΩΝ 411 IV/8
ΦΙΛΩΝ 432 IV/63 *
ΦΙΛΩΤΑΣ 445 IV/53
-15 62 ΕΥΚΤΗΜΩΝ ΦΑ ΝΙΣ ΚΟΥ head of Isis - / corn ear + grapes - 167 IV/70
ΕΥΝΟΥΣ 177 IV/59
ΚΤΗΤΟΣ 282 IV/74
ΛΕΩΝΙΔΑΣ 295 IV/80
ΠΕΡΙΓΕΝΗΣ 374 IV/72
ΣΩΣΤΡΙΩΝ 414 IV/81
ΦΙΛΩΝ 441 IV/63
ΦΙΛΟΝΙΔΑΣ 443 -
ΦΙΛΩΤΑΣ 458 IV/53
-14 61 ΑΡΙΣΤΩΝ ΚΛΕΙ ΤΟΡΙ ΟΥ wreath - / tripod Α  95 IV/82
ΔΗΜΟΚΡΙΤΟΣ - -
ΕΥΚΤΗΜΩΝ 165 IV/70
ΕΥΝΟΥΣ 174 IV/59
ΖΩΠΥΡΟΣ 202 IV/76
ΚΤΗΤΟΣ 278 IV/74
ΛΕΩΝΙΔΑΣ 293 IV/80
ΠΕΡΙΓΕΝΕΣ 373 IV/72
ΣΩΣΤΡΙΩΝ 413 IV/81
ΦΙΛΟΣΤΡΑΤΟΣ 431 IV/71
ΦΙΛΩΤΑΣ 454 IV/53
-13 60 ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΣ ΔΑ ΜΗ ΝΟΣ - - / ear of corn bunch of grapes 73 IV/65
ΑΡΙΣTΩΝ 94 IV/82
ΔΑΖΙΟΣ 127 IV/73
ΕΥ ΚΤΗΜΩΝ 164 IV/70
ΕΥΝΟΥΣ 172 IV/59
ΖΩΠΥΡΟΣ 201 IV/76
ΚΤΗΤΟΣ 276 IV/74
ΛΕΟΝΙΔΑΣ - -
ΜΟΝΟΥΝΙΟΣ 342 IV/77
ΞΕΝΩΝ 357 V/85
ΠΕΡΙ ΓΕΝΗΣ 372 IV/72
ΣΩΣΤΡΙΩΝ 412 IV/81
ΦΕΡΕ ΝΕΙΚΟΣ 422 IV/78
ΦΙΛΟ ΝΙΚΟΣ - IV/79
ΦΙΛΟ ΣΤΡΑΤΟΣ 430 IV/71
ΦΙΛΩΝ 435 IV/63
ΦΙΛΩΤΑΣ 449 IV/53

(Back to the top of this page ↑)


Class D5 (59-48 BC)

Multiple symbols on the obverse; maximum two obverse names are coupled with the reverse names.

Number of issues: 12. This is the final period; all emissions are included in the table. The overall characteristics do not differ much from Class D4: similar style and various symbols on the obverse. The reason to group these coins in a new class is the sudden reduction of the number of obverse names within the year issue: unlike in Classes D3 - D4, there is usually only one obverse name with a certain reverse name; with only two exceptions. It is likely that in those two years (55 and 48 BC), the earlier moneyer was replaced with a new one during the year of the eponymous magistrate (name on the reverse). This points at the chronological order of the two emissions within the same year: in 55 BC, eponymos Agathion was working with Xenon first and then with Meniskos. In 48 BC, the very last year of the drachma production, eponymos Aristen first worked with Filon, who was replaced by Silanos.

Class 5 coins form the bulk of the huge hoards of drachms found in the North-East Balkan region. The increased exportation of silver coins led to the gradual decline of the mean weight (diminishing silver content rather than smaller flans), more and more substandard pieces (irregular, flat struck, off-centre coins).

All 12 issues are included in the table, their chronology has been established.

Class D5 drachms
Year B.C. Obverse Reverse Above Left / Right Exergue Ceka Meta ½
-12 59 ΞΕΝΩΝ ΠΥΡ ΒΑ club Eagle - / - - 360 V/85
-11 58 ΧΑΡΟ ΠΙ ΝΟΥ Eagle on sceptre - / quiver - 363 V/85
-10 57 ΦΙΛΟ ΔΑ ΜΟΥ Eagle - / - hound 362 V/85
-9 56 ΦΙΛ ΛΙ Α Caps of Dioscuri ear of corn  / torch - 361 V/85
-8 55 ΑΓΑ ΘΙΩ ΝΟΣ Eagle with flapping wings - / - rudder 353 V/85
ΜΕΝΙΣΚΟΣ 316 V/86
-7 54 ΑΡ ΧΙΠ ΠΟΥ - - / - rudder 318 V/86
-6 53 ΦΙ ΛΩ ΤΑ - - / torch hound 331 V/86
-5 52 ΚΑΛ ΛΩ ΝΟΣ Flying Nike with wreath - / - thunderbolt 322 V/86 *
-4 51 ΔΙΟ ΝΥ ΣΙΟΥ Raven - / - - 320 V/86 *
-3 50 ΛΥ ΚΙΣ ΚΟΥ - - / female statue - 325 V/86 *
-2 49 ΦΙΛΩΝ ΜΕ ΝΙΣ ΚΟΥ Head of Helios - / - - 438 V/84 *
-1 48 ΑΡΙ ΣΤΗ ΝΟΣ - - / - thunderbolt 433 V/84
ΣΙΛΑΝΟΣ 376 V/83

(Back to the top of this page ↑)