The coinage of Apollonia and Dyrrhachium

Chronological list of the Dyrrhachian drachms

Corrected: 20 March 2017

Contents of this page:


Introduction to the list

The main aim of these tables is to give enough information for the identification of the Greek-Illyrian drachms even if (in many cases) the piece is not well centered. Representative coin pictures will be shown in the "Gallery" page (in preparation - be patient).

To create a complete list of the drachma emissions with full description and chronology is a challenging task. Unfortunately, the small number of hoards containing the early emissions has been unsufficient to establish their chronological sequence.

Building this page requires much time. For the time being, the tables of the early classes contain only few sample coins. Where the chronology is uncertain, the emissions are listed in the alphabetical order of the name on the reverse (which would denote the year of issue); and within this the coupled obverse names are also in alphabetical order. The names are printed in Greek capital letters and with breaks; as they are on the coins. The symbols on the obverse and both Ceka's and Albana Meta's list numbers are also shown. First I am going to extend the list with those many name combinations, which cannot be found in her book (see my comments in Further reading chapter) to encourage further discussion.

Only authentic name combinations are included; mischievous imitations taken as originals in many publications (also in Ceka's list) are not. The explanation and details of the different style elements forming the base of the chronological classification can be found in previous chapters.

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Class D1a-b (210-176 BC)

Obv.: Abbreviated or monogrammatic name above cow. No border of dots, no symbols, no exergue line. Rev.: Line border.

Number of known issues: 35. Based on purely style matters, the drachma production started when Agion was the eponymous magistrate in 210 BC, with two mint subordinates, So(...) and Er(...). The sequence of the other issues is still uncertain.

Class D1a-b drachms
Year B.C. Obverse Reverse Above name Left / Right Exergue Ceka Meta
-161 210 ΣΩ ΑΓΙ Ω ΝΟΣ - - / - - 395 I/5
ΕΡ 149 I/3
? ? ? ? - -/- - ? ?
? ? ΙΠ ΦΡΥ ΝΟ Υ - - / - - 242 -
? ? ? ? - -/- - ? ?
? ? ΑΓ ΒΙ Ω ΝΟΣ - - / - - 5 I/10
? ? ? ? - -/- - ? ?

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Class D2 (175-145 BC)

Obv. Full obverse names. No border of dots, no symbols. Exergue line.

Number of known issues: 31.

Class D2 drachms
Year B.C. Obverse Reverse Above name Left / Right Exergue Ceka Meta
? ? ? ? - -/- - ? ?
? ? ΚΤΗΣΩΝ ΑΛΚ ΜΑ ΝΙΔΑ - -/- - - -
? ? ? ? - -/- - ? ?
? ? ΑΛΚΑΙΟΣ ΛΥ ΣΙΠ ΠΟΥ - -/- - 36 ΙΙΙ/20
? ? ΑΡΧΙΜΗΔΗΣ - - / - - 101 III/31
? ? ΔΙΟΓΕΝΗΣ - - / - - 135 ΙΙΙ/26
? ? ΛΕΑ ΜΗΔΗΣ - - / - - 289 -
? ? ΣΤΕΦΑΝΟΣ - - / - - - -
? ? ? ? - -/- - ? ?
? ? ΑΡΧΙΜΗΔΗΣ ΠΑΡ ΜΕΝΙ ΣΚΟΥ - -/- - 103 ΙΙΙ/31
? ? ΔΙΟΓΕΝΗΣ - - / - - 138 -
? ? ? ? - -/- - ? ?
? ? ΜΑΧΑΤΑΣ ΠΙΣΤΟΞΕΝΟΥ - - / - - 313 -
? ? ΜΕΝΙΣΚΟΣ - - / - - 326 IV/18
? ? ? ? - -/- - ? ?
? ? ΘΕΟΔΟΤΟΣ ΘΕΟ ΓΕΝ ΕΟΣ - - / - - 221 -
? ? ? ? - -/- - ? ?

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Class D3 (144-93 BC)

Obv. One symbol on the obverse, usually in the exergue. Rev. Line border.

Number of known issues: 52.

Class D3 drachms
Year B.C. Obverse Reverse Above name Left / Right Exergue Ceka Meta
? ? ? ? - -/- - ? ?
? ? ΜΕΝΙΣΚΟΣ ΑΛΕ ΞΙΩ ΝΟΣ - -/- - or club 317 II/18
? ? ? ? - -/- - ? ?
? ? ΑΦΡΟΔΙΣΙΟΣ ΑΡΙ ΜΝΑΣ ΤΟΥ - -/- vine branch + grapes + leaf 9 IV/33
ΑΡΧΙΜΗΔΗΣ - -
ΕΥΠΟΡΟΣ - -
ΗΡΑΚΛΕΙΔΑΣ 204 III/27
ΗΡΟΔΟΤΟΣ 208 IV/36
ΘΕΟΔΟΤΟΣ 219 IV/35
ΚΛΕΩΝ 257 IV/34
ΛΕΥΚΙΟΣ 291 IV/44
ΜΑΧΑΤΑΣ 302 IV/37
ΠΑΡΑΜΟΝΟΣ - -
ΦΙΛΩΤΑΣ 447 IV/53
? ? ? ? - -/- - ? ?

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Class D4 (92-60 BC)

Multiple symbols on the obverse.

The number of different obverse names coupled with the same reverse name usually exceeds those in Class D3.

Number of known issues: 33. Only the later part of the issues have been included in the table, of which the chronology has been established.

Class D4 drachms
Year B.C. Obverse Reverse Above name Left / Right Exergue Ceka Meta
-20 67 ΑΝΤΙΓΕΝΗΣ ΘΕΟ ΓΕΝΕ ΟΣ head of Helios 0/torch hound 66 IV/62
ΕΥΝΟΥΣ 173 IV/59
ΦΙΛΕΜΩΝ 425 IV/61
ΦΙΛΩΝ 436 IV/63
-19 66 ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ ΒΟΙ ΚΗ ΝΟΣ torch 0/ear of corn vine branch + leaf 22 IV/69
ΑΝΤΙΜΑΧΟΣ 70 IV/64
ΕΥΝΟΥΣ 170 IV/59
ΚΥΔΙΠΠΟΣ - -
-18 65 ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ ΔΑΜΑ ΓΕ ΟΣ eagle on fulmen - / - - - IV/69
ΑΝΤΙΜΑΧΟΣ 72 IV/64
ΓΛΑΥΚΟΣ 124 IV/68
ΔΙΟΝΥΣΟΣ 143 IV/67
ΕΥΚΤΗΜΩΝ 163 IV/70
ΕΥΝΟΥΣ 171 IV/59
ΚΥΔΙΠΠΟΣ 287 IV/66
ΠΑΡΑΜΟΝΟΣ 370 -
ΦΙΛΩΝ 434 IV/63
-17 64 ΑΛΕΚΚΑΣ ΜΕ ΝΕΚ ΚΑ eagle on fulmen - / - - - -
ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ 27 -
ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΣ 75 IV/65
ΔΗΜΟΚΡΙΤΟΣ 131 IV/75
ΕΥΚΤΗΜΩΝ 166 IV/70
ΕΥΝΟΥΣ 175 IV/59
ΚΤΗΤΟΣ 279 V/74
ΚΥΔΙΠΠΟΣ 288 IV/66
ΦΙΛΩΝ 437 -
ΦΙΛΩΤΑΣ 455 IV/53
-16 63 ΑΝΤΙΜΑΧΟΣ Α ΜΥΝ ΤΑ - - / cornucopia rudder 69 IV/64
ΕΥΚΤΗΜΩΝ 162 IV/70
ΕΥΝΟΥΣ 168 IV/59
ΚΤΗΤΟΣ 275 IV/74
ΚΥΔΙΠΠΟΣ 286 IV/66
ΣΩΣΤΡΙΩΝ 411 IV/8
ΦΙΛΩΝ 432 IV/63
ΦΙΛΩΤΑΣ 445 IV/53
-15 62 ΕΥΚΤΗΜΩΝ ΦΑ ΝΙΣ ΚΟΥ head of Isis - / ear of corn + grapes - 167 IV/70
ΕΥΝΟΥΣ 177 IV/59
ΚΤΗΤΟΣ 282 IV/74
ΛΕΩΝΙΔΑΣ 295 IV/80
ΠΕΡΙΓΕΝΗΣ 374 IV/72
ΣΩΣΤΡΙΩΝ 414 IV/81
ΦΙΛΩΝ 441 IV/63
ΦΙΛΟΝΙΔΑΣ 443 -
ΦΙΛΩΤΑΣ 458 IV/53
-14 61 ΑΡΙΣΤΩΝ ΚΛΕΙ ΤΟΡΙ ΟΥ wreath - / tripod Α 95 IV/82
ΔΗΜΟΚΡΙΤΟΣ - -
ΕΥΚΤΗΜΩΝ 165 IV/70
ΕΥΝΟΥΣ 174 IV/70
ΖΩΠΥΡΟΣ 202 IV/76
ΚΤΗΤΟΣ 278 IV/74
ΛΕΩΝΙΔΑΣ 293 IV/80
ΠΕΡΙΓΕΝΕΣ 373 IV/72
ΣΩΣΤΡΙΩΝ 413 IV/81
ΦΙΛΟΣΤΡΑΤΟΣ 431 IV/71
ΦΙΛΩΤΑΣ 454 IV/53
-13 60 ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΣ ΔΑ ΜΗ ΝΟΣ - - / ear of corn bunch of grapes 73 IV/65
ΑΡΙΣΩΝ 94 IV/82
ΔΑΖΙΟΣ 127 IV/73
ΕΥ ΚΤΗΜΩΝ 164 IV/70
ΕΥΝΟΥΣ 172 IV/59
ΖΩΠΥΡΟΣ 201 IV/76
ΚΤΗΤΟΣ 276 IV/74
ΛΕΩΝΙΔΑΣ - -
ΜΟΝΟΥΝΙΟΣ 342 IV/77
ΞΕΝΩΝ 367 V/85
ΠΕΡΙ ΓΕΝΗΣ 372 IV/72
ΣΩΣΤΡΙΩΝ 412 IV/81
ΦΕΡΕ ΝΕΙΚΟΣ 422 IV/78
ΦΙΛΟ ΝΙΚΟΣ - IV/79
ΦΙΛΟ ΣΤΡΑΤΟΣ 430 IV/71
ΦΙΛΩΝ 435 IV/63
ΦΙΛΩΤΑΣ 449 IV/53

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Class D5 (59-48 BC)

Multiple symbols on the obverse; maximum two obverse names are coupled with the reverse names.

Number of issues: 12. This is the final period; all emissions are included in the table. The overall characteristics do not differ much from Class D4: similar style and various symbols on the obverse. The reason to group these coins in a new class is the sudden reduction of the number of obverse names within the year issue: unlike in Classes D3 - D4, there is usually only one obverse name with a certain reverse name; with only two exceptions. It is likely that in those two years (55 and 48 BC), the earlier moneyer was replaced with a new one during the year of the eponymous magistrate (name on the reverse). This points at the chronological order of the two emissions within the same year.

Class 5 coins form the bulk of the huge hoards of drachms found in the North-East Balkan region. The increased exportation of silver coins led to the gradual decline of the mean weight (diminishing silver content rather than smaller flans), more and more substandard pieces (irregular, flat struck, off-centre coins).

All 12 issues are included in the table, their chronology has been established.

Class D5 drachms
Year B.C. Obverse Reverse Above name Left / Right Exergue Ceka Meta
-12 59 ΞΕΝΩΝ ΠΥΡ ΒΑ club Eagle - / - - 360 V/85
-11 58 ΧΑΡΟ ΠΙ ΝΟΥ Eagle on sceptre - / quiver - 363 V/85
-10 57 ΦΙΛΟ ΔΑ ΜΟΥ Eagle - / - hound 362 V/85
-9 56 ΦΙΛ ΛΙ Α Caps of Dioscuri ear of corn / torch - 361 V/85
-8 55 ΑΓΑ ΘΙΩ ΝΟΣ Eagle with flapping wings - / - rudder 353 V/85
ΜΕΝΙΣΚΟΣ 316 V/86
-7 54 ΑΡ ΧΙΠ ΠΟΥ - - / - rudder 318 V/86
-6 53 ΦΙ ΛΩ ΤΑ - - / torch hound 331 V/86
-5 52 ΚΑΛ ΛΩ ΝΟΣ Flying Nike with wreath - / - thunderbolt 322 V/86
-4 51 ΔΙΟ ΝΥ ΣΙΟΥ Raven - / - - 320 V/86
-3 50 ΛΥ ΚΙΣ ΚΟΥ - - / female statue - 325 V/86
-2 49 ΦΙΛΩΝ ΜΕ ΝΙΣ ΚΟΥ Head of Helios - / - - 438 V/84
-1 48 ΑΡΙ ΣΤΗ ΝΟΣ - - / - thunderbolt 433 V/84
ΣΙΛΑΝΟΣ 376 V/83

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