The coinage of Apollonia and Dyrrhachium:
The Apollo denar and its fractions
Version 5 May 2018
Contents of this page
- The Roman monetary reform of Augustus
- The Apollo denar
- Creating the relative chronology
- Half denar
- Quarter denar
- Bonze denominations
- Literature references
The civil war ended the cow/calf type Hellenistic coin production in Illyria; Dyrrhachium did not produce coins any more. The next coinage from Apollonia, the Apollo denar series, took its name from the head of Apollo on the obverse of the silver denar. Its weight, and different style features (border of dots on both sides, inward legend on the obverse, exergue line with script below on the reverse) are similar to those of the post-reform denarius of Augustus; signs of convergence of the Apolloniate coinage to the Roman monetary system.
2. The Roman monetary reform of Augustus
The early Roman Republican coin names expressed the value in relation to the bronze unit called "as" (aes = bronze); hence denarius (tenner) = 10, quinarius (fiver) = 5, sestertius (the third is half) = 2.5, dupondius (double weight) = 2, semis = half, quadrans = quarter as. During the struggle for power in the second half of the 1st c B.C, different debased silver coins were struck by the different parties. Bronze coins had not been produced for long, except some during the war between Caesar and Pompey. Gaining power, Augustus ended this monetary chaos by creating a long-lasting monetary system in 23 B.C. The weight of the silver denarius was stabilized at 4 g. It was tariffed at 16 asses, quinar 8, sestertius 4, dupondius 2 asses. As, semis, and quadrans also were produced; thus, because of the retariffing, some of the actual coin names lost their original meaning. The Apolloniate Apollo denar series followed this system.
3. The Apollo denar
Bionos-Zoilos Apollo denar. Obv. Laureate head of Apollo facing left. BIΩNOΣ (Bionos, 'of Bion') left in field anticlockwise. Border of dots. Rev. Three nymphs hand in hand dancing, outer ones holding torches. Fire between the left and middle nymph, frills to left - right - right. Α-Π-Ο-Λ in field between dancers, [Z]ΩIΛOΣ (Zoilos) in the exergue. Border of dots. 3.97 g, 18.8 mm. SNG Tubingen 1322.
The series got its name from the obverse: head of Apollo. There is one or two names in field in front of the face, anticlockwise; the majority of these names are in the genitive case. The reverse shows three ladies dancing hand in hand around the fire on the ground; the outer ones holding torches. The scenario must be in the Apolloniate Nymphaeum that is the Latin version of the Greek name ΝΥΜΦΑΙΟΝ, with the ever burning fire. There is no question that these are nymphs; not Charites (or Graces, from the Latin equivalent) in other context including coins2. The nymphs on the Apollo denar series are not naked, and ribbons or frills of their long dress float behind them.
The ethnic attribute Α-Π-Ο-Λ is divided between the dancers in field. There can be one, two, or even three names in the exergue. The first is always in the nominative case; the third is usually in the genitive. It appears that the second and third name is the two names of the same person; the occasional presence of the masculine definite article in the genitive case (TOY) between them supports this. Thus, in this coin series, the eponymous person's name is on the obverse; the moneyer' name is on the reverse, where there can be two of them.
A systematic study of these coins with a full catalogue is still pending and no publication lists all varieties. A chapter in a book on the archaeology and history of Apollonia deals also with the coinage2, in which I found useful information about the Apollo denar series; but I have been a little bit cautious to accept all statements, see my criticism in the Further reading chapter.
According to hoard evidence, the Apollo denars and fractions were not circulating beyond the borders of the Apolloniate civic administration. The Dimalla hoard3 is the only one, which contains almost all coin types of this era: 27 denars, a half denar, a fire/pedum half drachma, and different Apolloniate bronze issues as the small change of the series; some of them can be survivors from earlier times.
The production of the Apollo denar series ended by the full territorial and political integration of the area in the Roman empire around the early 1st c. AD. Later, provincial bronze coins were produced in Apollonia under few Roman emperors (see in next chapter: "Roman provincial issues").
The richest collection of the Apollo denars and fractions (similarly to the drachms) is the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna, closely followed by the so far unpublished collection of the Berlin Museum; several pieces are in the Bibliotheque National Paris (unpublished) and in the British Museum. Of the fully illustrated museum collections in the Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum series, the Cambridge Leake and General Collection has 14 denars, Tubingen five, and some other SNGs also have one or two. The silver fractions are even rarer.
4. Creating the relative chronology
I am trying to establish the relative chronological order of the Apollo denars. Meticulous observation of details on the coins may help forming chronological groups like it was successful in the cow/calf drachma series. The following details seem to worth observing on the Apollo denars:
- Border: border of dots or else
- Apollo facing left = L or right = R
- Name carved anticlockwise = a or clockwise = c
- Object on the obverse in field
- Border: border of dots or else
- Outer nymphs hold torches, or outer nymph holds apple
- Fire on exergue line: between left and middle nymph = L, between right and middle nymph = R, no fire = 0
- Nymphs facing to right = R, or to left = L; starting with the left nymph
- Ribbons (of frills?) floating around the legs of the nymphs, starting with the left nymph: to left = L or right = R
- Ethnic Α-Π-Ο-Λ distributed in field; name(s) below the exergue line, or both Α-Π-Ο-Λ and moneyer's name are distributed in field
- Both sides
- Connection between legs of alpha: horizontal = A, or v-like = V
Still more than thirteen centuries to come until Brunelleschi and Masaccio showed us how to put perspective on canvas, we should imagine that the nymphs are dancing around the fire; turned to it, and the frills of their dress float naturally behind them. On some coins the attempt is clear: the fire is between two dancers who are turning to the fire and the frills float in the opposite direction; but the third nymph was simply put in line, behind another. This arrangement help find the place of the fire where it should have been if it is not visible on some worn pieces; not to be confused by types where there is no fire on the ground (represented by the exergue line). However, there are coins where this rule is not observed, and the overlapping parts become corrupted, creating the impression of "fire hazard" for the clothes. This can be the result of the inability of less skilled engravers to represent space but occasionally, this raises the possibility of unofficial minting (imitation), especially if the coin shows other irregularities. This particular observation has not been addressed in the numismatic literature.
The total of name combinations recorded by me is around 44 produced during approximately 28 years based on the number of names on the obverse, regarding them as the yearly elected eponymous magistrates. The sequence (relative chronology) of the issues is still unknown. I tend to accept the view expressed in the literature1,2 that the only published hoard (Dimalla) contains the earliest denars: Apollo facing left, fire between left and middle nymph, V-type alpha forms the majority of coins. Many more hoards are needed for establishing a more reliable relative chronology.
The table below will show my temporary classification of the different Apollo denar emissions based on recognizable style differences. (under construction)
|Year||B.C.||Obverse name||Reverse name||Head||Fire||Facing||Frills||A||Reference|
|?||?||ΑΓΟΝΙΠΠΟΥ||ΔΙΝΟΚΡΑΤΗΣ / ΕΡΙΜΝΑΣ/ΤΟΥ||L||L||R-L-L||L-R-R||V||Tb 1321|
Class 2. Laureate head of Apollo facing left. Three nymphs dancing to left, outer nymphs holding torches; fire between middle and right nymph.
5. Half denar (quinar)
The obverse of the half denar shows head of Pallas Athena in Corinthian helmet facing left, and a magistrate name in the genitive case on the obverse. Reverse: obelisk embraced by the two parts of a name in the nominative case, ΑΠΟΛΛΩ/NIATAN.
Two name combinations have been known: ΑΝΔΡΩΝΟΣ-ΤΙ/ΜΗΝ, and ΦΙΛΟΝΙΔΑ-ΑΡΙΣΤΟ/ΛΟΧΟΣ. The former is known also from the Dimalla hoard, which contains several Apollo denars.
6. Quarter denar (sestertius)
The quarter denar (sestertius, now worth of four asses) displays lyre on the obverse and obelisk left in field; other features correspond with those on the half denar. One name combination is known, which is one of the two in the half denars:
ΦΙΛΟΝΙΔΑ-ΑΡΙΣΤΟ/ΛΟΧΟΣ quarter denar. 0.91 g, 11.4 mm. SNG Tubingen 1375.
7. Bronze denominations
On the recent discovery of this coin, the earlier views about the bronze fractions of the Apollo denars1 require re-thinking:
Apolloniate bronze sestertius. Obv. Laureate head of Apollo facing left. ΛΥΣΩΝ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ (Lyson of Basileus) anticlockwise. Border of dots. Rev. Three nymphs hand in hand dancing, outer ones holding torches. [Fire between the left and middle nymph?]; Α-[Π-Ο-Λ] between nymphs, Δ[ΥΟΝΥΣΟ]/Δ[ΟΡΟΣ] in exergue. Border of dots. 25.4 g, 33.4 mm, die axis 12 h. Unique, unpublished.
This bronze piece appears to be authentic, matches the features of the ΛΥΣΩΝ - ΔΙΟΝΥΣΟ/ΔΩΡΟΣ Apollo denar (see in the table above); the size matches the post-reform Roman bronze sestertius (which were produced in the colonies).
- As: Apollo/obelisk
The mean weight of these is around 4.5 g, as the contemporary Roman semis.
- Semis: Apollo/lyre
The mean weight of these is around 9 g, as the contemporary Roman as.
In the Dimalla hoard, there are several, much smaller bronze coins of Apollonia. Here I will discuss only those types, which have similar design to the Apollo denars: laureate head of Apollo with a name in field inward (anticlockwise), border of dots.
9. Literature references
- Gjongecaj, S, Picard, O. Les Monnaies d'Apollonia. In: Apollonia d'Illyrie 1. Atlas archéologique et historique. Collection de l'École française de Rome 391, 2007, 81-106.
- Staal, M.A. The Three Graces and their numismatic mythology. 2004.
- Gjongecaj, S, Picard, O. Le trésor de Dimalla 1973 et le passage du monnayage hellénistique au monnayage impérial à Apollonia d'Illyrie. Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique 122 (1998) 511-527.